While I was traveling from Glendive, MT, where SRS Crisafulli is based, to New Orleans, LA, for Battelle’s 2015 Contaminated Sediments Conference, the EPA was making an emergency trip from its office in Colorado to Glendive to begin to deal with the Bridger Pipeline oil spill, before this also became a contaminated sediments problem.
This is a stark reminder that while many of these projects are long term, and have defined goals, there are emergencies that require immediate action.
Da Nang Airbase, Vietnam: Cleaning the Ground
Photo: Agent Orange Action Group
At the Battelle Conference, the most unusual presentation came from Dr. Kent Sorenson, of CDM Smith. His client is the United States Agency for International Development (USAID); the site is the Da Nang Airbase, Vietnam. This airbase was used by the US military from 1959–1975. At the north end of the airbase, Operation Ranch Hand mixed, loaded, and stored 100,000 barrels of Agent Orange. The toxic Dioxin (2,3,7,8 – TCDD) is a component of Agent Orange, and was left behind, devastating those with prolonged exposure. The residuals represent the highest levels of dioxin in the world. The clean-up, which is happening now, is Thermal Conduction Heating under Vacuum Extraction, with insulated covers, and heater wells. The volume of material requiring treatment is 42,000 m3 of soil and 45,000 m3 of sediment.
Environmental Remediation at Da Nang Airport: USAID Dioxin Contamination Project Progress: Soil Sampling
Last year, USAID and CDM Smith received an Honor Award in Environmental Communication from the American Academy of Environmental Engineers and Scientists. The award recognized the public information and stakeholder involvement program associated with remediation of dioxin contamination at the Da Nang Airport in Vietnam.
“As we prepare to move and clean this ground, so have we moved mountains to bring the United States and Vietnam to this landmark moment,” said U.S. Ambassador David B. Shear. “We are both moving earth and taking the first steps to bury the legacies of our past. I look forward to even more successes to follow,” he added. Two U.S. companies, CDM Smith and Tetra Tech Inc., were awarded the contract for construction management and oversight of the entire project in coordination with the Vietnamese ministry.
Kent Sorenson’s presentation was focused on the technical aspects of the remediation, and he acknowledged the political and cultural environmental impacts as well.
Other Remediation Sites presented:
The Gowanus Canal. Yes! The Gowanus Canal Photo:
This NYC site was originally a shallow wetland that was an authorized fill site in 1849. There were 3 manufactured gas plants (MGP) plants which discharged into the canal, in addition to sewage.
From the late 1800's to the mid 1900's, hundreds of Manufactured Gas Plants supplied homes and industry with fuel for heating, cooking, and lighting. Today, the New York State Department of Economic Conservation, and others, are overseeing the investigation and cleanup of contamination left behind from these plants.
Brian Carr, Assistant Regional Counsel, U.S. EPA, New York, presented on the history and proposed Gowanus Canal cleanup. There was a Record of Decision (ROD) in 2013. (I had total acronym fatigue and confusion.)
The 100 page ROD document – the Record of Decision – outlines the $500 million cleanup which is now proceeding. What are we cleaning? There are PAHs, PCB’s and heavy metals, including mercury, lead, copper and bicycles on their way out of the Gowanus Canal.
Acronym cheat sheet:
PAH: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PAHs have been identified as carcinogenic and mutagenic (as well as teratogenic), and are considered pollutants of concern for the potency of potential adverse health impacts; the same holds true of their presence at significant levels over time in human diets.
PCB: polychlorinated biphenyl. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), PCBs cause cancer in animals and are probable human carcinogens, and they have been widely disbursed in the environment, way beyond the Hudson River, which we have all heard so much about.
This conference – the 8th – that Battelle has assembled on this topic was well attended. Organizers commented on the attendance of over 1,000 sophisticated project managers, scientists, vendors, contractors, and representatives of industry – Dow, DuPont, Honeywell, The Boeing Company – as well as the regulatory EPA, and the Scientific community from the Corp of Engineers.
Dr. Todd Bridges, Senior Research Scientist at the Research & Development Center of the US Army Corp in Vicksburg, Mississippi, was particularly outspoken, advocating for full and open deliberations within the Community of Environmental Remediation stakeholders.
Todd led a spirited review of decision making processes, and advocated that “sunlight is the best of disinfectants.”
The Conference’s closing roundtable panel addressed the question: Can Urban Master Planning Help Resolve the Cost/Benefit Impasse at Large Contaminated Sediment Sites. The panel told stories of reconnecting communities to their rivers, using design competitions and economic development projects to increase the values of the outcomes.
Yes, we will provide updates and comments on the impact of the January 17, 2015 Bridger Pipeline Yellowstone River oil spill on these pages in the weeks and months ahead. So far, of the 50,000 gallons of oil originally believed released, responders have recovered more than 21,000 gallons from both the pipeline and the Yellowstone River.
USAID Da Nang Airport Cleanup
Gowanus Canal Record of Decision
Bridger Pipeline Oil Spill Response
SRS Crisafulli is packing personnel and equipment to exhibit at the World Dairy Expo in Madison, Wisconsin, September 30th – October 4th.
SRS Crisafulli's Booths: #726 & 727
We’ll be outside with a Slurry Pump, and a FLUMP with new agitation features on display. Stop by and find out how SRS Crisafulli can solve your settled solids lagoon challenges.
Here is our encampment photo from last year's World Dairy Expo:
Staff attending in 2014: Dredge Rental and Sales Manager Troy Fercho, and Chad Schipman, Engineering Manager.
WEFTEC: Water Environment Federation: water quality people at the annual water quality event takes place in New Orleans, Louisiana September 29th – October 1st.
SRS Crisafulli's Booth: #7928
Staff attending: Applications Engineer Tristan Hoff, CFO Laura Fleming, Treasurer Aldace Fleming, with support from Representative Frank Vestal of Tennessee. We look forward to connecting with other Representatives and Customers at this National Event.
In the News:
Tristan Hoff, Applications Engineer, recently opened an SRS Crisafulli Sales office in Kennebunk, Maine. While attending the Western Dredging Association trade show in Toronto, Canada, writer Judith Powers interviewed Mr. Hoff for International Dredging Review.
The article and photo can be found here.
Manure Managers Expo
Finally, in early June, SRS Crisafulli participated for the first time in the Manure Managers Show in Springfield, Missouri. The Floating Lagoon Pumping System (FLUMP), competed with Agitation Boats at a Dairy Lagoon, and generated interest because of it's low-turbidity and electric approach to moving manure. Design Engineer Jordan Webb was interviewed by Douglas Hamiilton, PdD, Oklahoma State University, Associate Professor, Waste Management Specialist. That interview was filmed and will be available soon.
Photo: Jordan Webb and Douglas Hamiliton fiilming in front of the FLUMP.
Happy Hunting one and all.
Links to the 2 Fall Shows:
Well, it's actually a bit of winter schedule, but this winter needs more spring.
We are kicking off our trade show schedule by being in two places: Fargo, North Dakota and Great Falls, Montana. In both cases, we are attending the State Rural Water Show.
At the Fargo Rural Water Show, SRS Crisafulli's Troy Fercho, Dredge Sales and Rental, will be making a presentation: Wastewater Lagoon Dredging Process.
The A Team will then travel to Des Moines, Iowa, for their Rural Water Show (February 24 - 26), and swing by the Pumper Show in Indianapolis. Let us know if you want to meet up. We are traveling lightly at the Pumper Show - you will not find us on the Exhibitors List.
In March, we are working the Idaho Rural Water Show (March 12 - 14) in Boise, and then at the end of April, we will be at the California Rural Water Show at Lake Tahoe. We can't wait for that show - as it will actually be spring then, even if California is experiencing a drought.
Of course, we will also be at the Glendive Agri-Tech Exposition at the Eastern Plains Event Center that opens tomorrow, February 7, and continues into Saturday. We are introducing SRS Crisafulli's DUAL-PRO (540/1000) Power Unit at this event. Please stop by. Our original camouflage trailer pump will also be on display outdoors.
North Dakota Rural Water Association
In many areas of North Dakota, water used for domestic, municipal, and livestock needs, is of
insufficient quantity and/or quality. This has inconvenienced the residents of small towns and rural areas, as well as retarded the overall economic growth of North Dakota. The formation of rural water systems has helped to bring clean, safe water to many of these areas throughout North Dakota.
Montana Rural Water Association
Provides training and technical assistance to people running systems for drinking water, waste water, including tribal communities.
Iowa Rural Water: Feburary 24 - 26
Conference theme: Power of the Past; Force of the Future
Idaho Rural Water Association March 12 - 14
Quoting from a recent press release in the Idaho Statesman: "Idaho Gov. Otter touted a study in his State of the State address to look at raising the height of the nearly century-old Arrowrock Dam to increase the Treasure Valley's water supply. But if the 348-foot dam is raised, it will be flood control that drives the decision and the millions of dollars in federal spending the project would need... an estimated $10 billion worth of homes, buildings and other structures lie in the Boise River flood plain. Water supply is a future concern for Idaho's farmers, but flooding is an every-year worry for anyone living along the river."
Water is never boring.
California Rural Water Association EXPO: April 28 - May 1, South Lake Tahoe
Glendive Agricultural Trade Exposition - Glendive, Montana
“in Just- spring when the world is mud- luscious the little lame balloonman whistles far and wee.”
―E. E. Cummings
By: Travis Stroh, Technical Sales
At SRS Crisafulli we get calls from duck hunters and duck clubs throughout the United States. We are a proud sponsor of Ducks Unlimited. We are fans of Duck Dynasty and many of us here at SRS Crisafulli have hunting in our blood.
So we decided to make a Camo pump.
And when we decide to make something, we just make it.
Many people love the use of the SRS Crisafulli Trailer Pump to flood fields and create habitat for waterfowl.
And while we're in the Happy, Happy, Happy frame of mind - similar to our friends from the Duck Dynasty in the South - we set up a scout here in the North.
And then we gave our Scout, Sammy, another Scout, Darlene.
And, between the efforts of Darlene and Sammy, they found Santa:
We close this blog with a few extra notes and links:
Pikes Hunting Club in Illinois was an early adapter of the Crisafulli Trailer Pump for flooding waterfowl habitat.
Mississippi State University publishes a Waterfowl Habitat Management Handbook, with extensive discussion of levee construction, water control structures, and plant and animal management.
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Waterfowl Population Status 2013
For further discovery, we recommend Ducks Unlimited, Wetlands & Grassland Habitat, the benefits of two key waterfowl habitat types.
Happy Hunting. Happy Holidays.
SRS Crisafulli, Inc., Glendive, Montana
By Laura Fleming, President
For those of you who are following the Harlem Sludge Removal project, after several rain delays, the job is finally scheduled to proceed. The job is setting up this weekend, (July 20th) and will run approximately 2 weeks. The assignment is to dredge municipal sludge into a Geotube on site for dewatering into at least 75 dry ton of cake.
As reported here earlier, our electric remote controlled dredge - The Flump - will be used in conjunction with Tencate Geotubes and WaterSolve's flocculants to decant and dewater 35 years of sludge from this small Wastewater Treatment Plant three lagoon system.
The training associated with this installation - 2013 Sludge Removal for Small System Wastewater Operators Workshop - was presented by Wastewater Technician Dan Kramer, Randy Wilcox of WaterSolve, and Alan Juncker of Tencate on June 6th. SRS Crisafulli's Chad Schipman gave a presentation on this history of the Crisafulli sludge removal systems product line.
Randy Wilcox, PE, Technical Sales Manager, WaterSolve, demonstrating the power of flocculants.
Alan Juncker, Geotube Market Manager, TenCate, offering a finished cake of sludge.
The graduating class: Montana Rural Water Association offered Continuing Education for participants in this half day demonstration and training at the Harlem City Hall.
Harlem Montana is on the high-line of Montana's Rte 2. The Amtrak train stops on either side of Harlem - in both Havre and Malta. If you'd like to visit the jobsite by train, we will meet you. You'll be 4 hours east of Glacier National Park - another stop on the Amtrak line. Pack your bag for a summer hike, and you have yourself a holiday.
We know there are plenty of small wastewater systems out there that operators must desludge. We welcome visitors to this jobsite to see how it's done. Seriously, SRS Crisafulli and our partners on this project are making great efforts to educate and demonstrate the most common strategy Wastewater lagoon operators can deploy to maintain compliance, and a long lasting lagoon system.
To schedule an appointment at the job-site, please call the Glendive offices of SRS Crisafulli, Inc., at 406 365 3393, or phone direct to SRS Crisafulli Dredge Rental Manager, Troy Fercho at 612 419 9312.
The Team: Ryan Rittal, PE, Stahly Engineering, Chad Schipman, SRS Crisafulli Engineering, Randy Wilcox, PE, WaterSolve, Alan Juncker, Tencate, Richard from the City of Harlem, Dan Kramer from Montana Rural Water Association, Troy Fercho and Frank Robinson of SRS Crisafulli Sales and Dredge Rental.
Links to our partners:
Montana Rural Water Association
What should you do when your town is under multiple and ongoing consent orders for violations of its Montana Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (MPDES) wastewater discharge permit?
By Laura Fleming, President
Excessive lagoon sludge accumulation contributes to the poor performance of any treatment system, particularly in winter. Removing sludge from the lagoon cells will improve treatment at the facility and help to address some of the violations in the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) enforcement action.
The City of Harlem, Montana has a wastewater treatment system consisting of a three cell partially mixed aerated lagoon system constructed in 1985. The lagoon system discharges to the Milk River under wastewater discharge permit MT0021270. The sludge removal project is the initial step in a comprehensive facility upgrade for the City of Harlem.
Photo: Plaque at the Harlem WasteWater Lagoons: Construction 1985.
Stahly Engineering & Associates, Bozeman, MT and City of Harlem staff conducted a lagoon survey in December 2009. Each cell was sampled in multiple locations using a sludge judge probe assembly operated from a small boat. Solids volumes were calculated using the lagoon bottom area multiplied by the sludge depth. A volume allowance was added for solids accumulated along the sloped sides. The aerated ponds contain significant quantities of settled solids 1 to 2 percent in concentration and occupy between 27 and 58 percent of available volume.
Photo: Aeration in Cell #3, City of Harlem, WWTP, May 2013
Jim Bridges, a Geotube distributor doing business as Clearwater Dewatering, in Nampa, Idaho, brought together a number of parties to collaborate on the City of Harlem’s Sludge Removal Project and turn it into a training opportunity.
WaterSolve, LLC, a national leader in dewatering operations located in Caledonia, Michigan, and a master distributor of TenCate GeoTube® products bid the project. The project is financed by a grant from the Renewable Resource Grant and Loan (RRGL) program of Montana’s Department of Natural Resources.
A subcontractor to WaterSolve, SRS Crisafulli, Inc., Glendive, MT, a manufacturer of sludge removal dredge systems, will be providing the dredge, float line, and operator/trainers to this two week project, located 270 miles northwest of the Glendive factory, just the other side of the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge.
Montana Rural Water System’s Dan Kramer has qualified a training program, Sludge Removal for Small System Wastewater Operators Workshop, as a Continuing Education Credit (.35 CEC's)for Montana Certified Operators, approved by the Montana DEQ. He is offering training at the jobsite with presentations at City Hall. The training will be offered on Thursday, June 6th, 2013. Training is geared towards small and medium sized wastewater systems. The training will provide information about the importance of the Notice of Intent, daily monitoring of equipment calibration and operation, a discussion of sludge removal, and the on-site demonstration of the working sludge removal system.
Photo: Montana Water Environment Association Award to the City of Harlem for the Outstanding Operation, Maintenance and Administration of a WasteWater Treatment System, 1995. On the wall at the Harlem City Hall.
Presentations at this one-day seminar will be conducted by Dan Kramer, Wastewater Technician, and Randy Wilcox, P.E., Technical Sales Manager of WaterSolve. Representative Alan Junker from Tencate, and Ryan Rittall of Stahly Engineering will participate in a roundtable discussion. This program is open to all wastewater operators and is eligible for 0.35 CEC’s. The seminar will cover the problems facing many wastewater treatment lagoon facilities.
This specific project involves the removing of approximately 75 tons (dry weight basis) of lagoon solids from up to three treatment lagoons and pumping to a gravity dewatering system consisting of polymer addition and gravity dewatering bags. All systems are designed by the contractor and all dewatering bags will be left on site.
If you are interested in attending, please contact Dan Kramer at firstname.lastname@example.org.
We look forward to see you in Harlem!
In an article written by Jeff Kolpack of Inforum, the Forum of Fargo and Moorhead, SRS Crisafulli makes news for helping the Fargo Park District plan for quick removal of anticipated flood waters at the Edgewood Golf Course, an 18-hole, par 71 Championship course beautifully located along the Red River - the very same Red River that is likely to jump it's banks.
“Enlisting the help of a small army… to fight a flood. A very small three-piece army known as Crisafulli water pumps.”
Over a year ago, the Fargo Park District made an investment in three Crisafulli trailer pumps to empty a basin of their golf course which floods when the Red River reaches the 30 foot flood stage. Rather than waiting for the water to drain naturally, the District made the decision to purchase three Crisafulli water pumps. What they didn't expect was how effective the pumps would be. If the course can open weeks ahead of schedule, golfers can hit the course sooner, enabling the District to realize a sooner than expected return on investment.
Read the entire article "Pumps may lengthen golf season at Edgewood." Also, to learn more about SRS Crisafulli and our Trailer Pumps please visit http://www.crisafullipumps.com/
SRS Crisafulli, Inc. ships a shallow draft dredge to Manila, Philippines to ring in 2013
After a year of close collaboration with the customer, SRS Crisafulli’s versatile resources in both engineering and manufacturing resulted in shipment of a Rotomite SD-110 shallow draft dredge to Maynilad Water Service in the Philippines.
Three Philippine firms played key roles to close the deal – i.e., Maynilad Water Services, a private water and wastewater provider for the 17 cities and municipalities that comprise the West Zone of the greater Metro Manila area, WaterKonsult Equipment and Service, Inc., a leading equipment and service supplier serving Maynilad and many other Philippine water utilities and water districts, and SRS Crisafulli’s authorized Factory Representative, Ramoncito “Chito” Manaois, of RFM Machinery & Equipment Corp. of Manila, Philippines.
In February of 2012, Waterkonsult contacted SRS Crisafulli through SRS Crisafulli’s website.
Maynilad Water Service needed to remove sediment at its La Mesa Treatment Plant 1. The sediment-bearing water comes from the Angat Dam and travels more than 30 kilometers to the plant. The river also carries silt to the treatment plant where sludge is collected at the bottom of sedimentation basins. To achieve acceptable, sustained settled water quality and to comply with environmental regulations, La Mesa Treatment Plant 1 must clean its sedimentation basins twice a year. Cleaning the basins twice a year will preserve basin capacity and water quality.
Waterkonsult learned of Maynilad’s bid offering and contacted SRS Crisafulli. Waterkonsult, in association with Crisafulli’s Philippine sales representative, asked SRS Crisafulli for detailed product specifications for the Rotomite SD-110 dredge, and what makes the Rotomite SD-110 a superior dredge.
Over the next several months, personnel from Crisafulli, Ramoncito, and Waterkonsult collaborated with Maynilad, answering requests for more information on the Rotomite SD-110. After satisfactorily answering all the requests, the Rotomite SD-110 dredge was selected. The winning SD-110 package offers a high-performing dredge pump able to move 1500 gpm at 80ft TDH in water. The cutterhead has a 90-inch by 15-inch opening for high sludge production. The hydraulic thruster enables the dredge to be driven like a boat.
On December 31, 2012, the Rotomite SD-110 left SRS Crisafulli’s Factory headed for Manilia for delivery in February 2013. Pursuant to SRS Crisafulli’s superior worldwide service, a SRS Crisafulli Factory-trained engineer will travel to Manila to support the installation and to commission the Rotomite SD-110 dredge.
By Laura M. Fleming, SRS Crisafulli President/CFO
What is coagulation and flocculation, and why does it matter?
Last week, SRS Crisafulli hosted a bucket demonstration of Tencate Geotube technology, presented by Gregg Lebster of WaterSolve, from Grand Rapids, Michigan, and Jim Bridges, of Clearwater Dewatering, from Nampa, Idaho.
These relationships were renewed last summer when SRS Crisafulli's Australian Dealers, Bill Kelly and Andrew Cochran, made a visit to the factory in Glendive. Over a few beers and dinner at the Lion's Club A-Frame in Makoshika Park, we discussed Dredging Solutions' successes using Geotubes to dredge and dewater sludge from wastewater treatment lagoons. Feeding the Geotubes with their Crisafulli Flump dredge system, Dredging Solutions has accomplished biosolids of >25%.
|4" Severe Duty Flump, CRS Polymer Dosing Systems, Geotube® Dewatering Containers
In South Australia, Dredging & Dewatering of Sewage Lagoons
Bill Kelly explained the art of the Geotubes in his fine Aussie manner. In particular, Bill emphasized the science of chemical conditioning regimes to flocculate the sludge. We had homework to do - we're a mechanical engineering outfit, not chemical engineers.
Crisafulli dredge systems have been installed in over 30 wastewater treatment facilities, including most recently an award winning system at Natchez, Mississippi, as well as the Wastewater Treatment plants in places such as Lompoc Regional WWTP, California, the Douglas County Sewer in Zephyr Cove, Nevada, the City of Mandan, North Dakota, and the City of Bozeman, Montana.
The communitites of Glendive and West Glendive - here in rural Eastern Montana - have 90 acres currently in lagoons, and the communities are in the process of evaluating how to address the current and future wastewater needs.
You can't blame us for wondering if we could be of any assistance to local public works departments.
We turned to Rosa-lee Cooke, Water/Wastewater Instructor at the Mountain Empire Community College, Big Stone Gap, Virginia, who offers an online curriculum in Water and Wastewater Treatment Technology, and an Associate in Applied Science Degree with a Water/Wastewater Specialization for some background.
"In theory and at the chemical level, coagulation and flocculation is a three step process consisting of flash mixing, coagulation and flocculation. The primary purpose of the coagulation/flocculation process is the removal of turbidity from the water. Water with little or no turbidity will be clear."
"The end product of a well-regulated coagulation/flocculation process is water in which the majority of the turbidity has been collected into floc, which is clumps of bacteria and particulate impurities that have come together and formed a cluster."
Time for the bucket demonstration:
- We collected buckets of sludge from the West Glendive sewage lagoon.
- We vigorously mixed the sludge.
- Gregg Lebster prepared a selection of coagulant chemicals to add to the sludge.
- We mixed the coagulant with the sludge to create floc - which was then poured through a small geotube fabric sample.
Dan Kramer, from Montana Rural Water Systems, Great Falls, Montana inspected Gregg's floc, and the clear water that had separated from the sludge.
- Later in the day, we repeated the demonstration at the fire hall. Our improvisations resulted in a small geotube - held here by Ed Trainer, Geotube marine and coastline market manager, filled with fresh floc.
We hear from people in the field that many communitities are being encouraged to build mechanical plants; we also hear that mechanical plants are both labor and energy intensive, and that the passive, non-energy intensive lagoon system may yet have more useful lives.
To read more, please see Rosa-Lee Cooke's Lesson 4, Coagulation and Flocculation, Mountain Empire Community College.
To read more about the proposed improvements to the Glendive wastewater infrastructure:
Great West Engineering West Glendive Public Works Wastewater Treatment Plant Presentation, and, City of Glendive, Public Meeting Presentation, April 26, 2011, Wastewater System Improvements.
SRS Crisafulli, Inc. invites interested members of the community to a bucket demonstration and presentation of dewatering technologies at the West Glendive Fire Hall at 1:00 pm, Tuesday, October 2.
Presentations will be by:
Jim Bridges, Clearwater Dewatering, Nampa, Idaho
Gregg Lebster, President, WaterSolve, LLC, Grand Rapids, Michigan, and
Ed Trainer, Geotube marine and coastline market manager, Tencate Industrial Fabrics
1:00 – 3:00
West Glendive Fire Station
Tuesday, October 2, 2012
Tencate Representative Ed Trainer will demonstrate how to use a Geotube as part of a dewatering and sludge separation system.
Gregg Lebster will discuss the art of polymers.
Efficient removal of water in the liquid solids separation is key to overall use cost analysis. WaterSolve is keenly aware of the value and cost of producing solids to be removed from your site.
WaterSolve polymers offer excellent solids retention and high filtration efficiencies in dredging operations where the floc formation time is often limited and the time to specified cake dryness is critical.
For more information about the arts:
R.S.V.P. or questions: Ms. Elizabeth Kaiser, Marketing Manager, SRS Crisafulli, Inc., Glendive, MT.
SRS Crisafulli is a business partner with TencateGeotubes. SRS stands for Sludge Removal Systems.
We look forward to seeing you for this presentation and discussion.